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Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation in Aging

Encyclopedia Articles
Felix, Jorge; Klimczuk, Andrzej
Felix, J., & Klimczuk, A. (2020). Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation in Aging. In D. Gu & M. E. Dupre (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (pp. 1–8). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_242-1
Publication year: 2020

Social entrepreneurship is usually understood as an economic activity which focuses at social values, goals, and investments that generates surpluses for social entrepreneurs as individuals, groups, and startups who are working for the benefit of communities, instead of strictly focusing mainly at the financial profit, economic values, and the benefit generated for shareholders or owners. Social entrepreneurship combines the production of goods, services, and knowledge in order to achieve both social and economic goals and allow for solidarity building. From a broader perspective, entities that are focused on social entrepreneurship are identified as parts of the social and solidarity economy. These are, for example, social enterprises, cooperatives, mutual organizations, self-help groups, charities, unions, fair trade companies, community enterprises, and time banks. Social innovation is a key element of social entrepreneurship. Social innovation is usually understood as new strategies, concepts, products, services, and organizational forms that allow for the satisfaction of needs. Such innovations are created in particular in the contact areas of various sectors of the social system. For example, these are spaces between the public sector, the private sector, and civil society. These innovations not only allow the solving of problems but also extend possibilities for public action.

Organic Agriculture

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
Klimczuk, A., & Klimczuk-Kochańska, M. (2020). Organic Agriculture. In S. Romaniuk, M. Thapa, & P. Marton (Eds.), The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies (pp. 1–7). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_480-1
Publication year: 2020

Consumers are increasingly aware of the health- and safety-related implications of the food which they can buy in the market. At the same time, households have become more aware of their environmental responsibilities. Regarding the production of food, a crucial and multifunctional role is played by agriculture. The way vegetables, fruits, and other crops are grown and how livestock is raised has an impact on the environment and landscape. Operations performed by farmers, such as water management, can be dangerous for the soil and the whole ecosystem. Consequently, there is a search for natural ways of sustaining the impact of agriculture on the environment. In this context, one of the most popular ideas is organic agriculture. In the literature on the subject, there are many concepts that some authors consider to be synonymous even as others argue that these terms are not interchangeable. There is, for example, “organic agriculture,” “alternative agriculture,” “sustainable agriculture,” “ecological agriculture,” “biological agriculture,” “niche farming,” “community-supported agriculture,” and “integrated pest management.” Very often, techniques and products related to organic agriculture are described by marketing experts with the use of abbreviations such as “bio” and “eco.” Products with such markings and labels are increasingly popular in stores that often give them separate shelves for their sale. Despite the higher price compared to conventional products, they are increasingly sought by consumers. The entry examines the various impacts of organic agriculture with a view to these trends.

Financial Gerontology

Encyclopedia Articles
Selecky, Erik; Klimczuk, Andrzej
Selecky, E., & Klimczuk, A. (2020). Financial Gerontology. In D. Gu & M. E. Dupre (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (pp. 1–5). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_192-1
Publication year: 2020

Financial gerontology can be defined as investigating relations between finances and aging. Authors such as Neal E. Cutler, Kouhei Komamura, Davis W. Gregg, Shinya Kajitani, Kei Sakata, and Colin McKenzie (Kajitani et al. 2017) affirm that financial literacy is an effect of aging with concern about the issue of finances, as well as stating that it is the effect of longevity and aging on economies or the financial resilience of older people.

Area Agencies on Aging

Encyclopedia Articles
Perkins, Fatima; Klimczuk, Andrzej
Perkins, F., & Klimczuk, A. (2020). Area Agencies on Aging. In D. Gu & M. E. Dupre (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging (pp. 1–5). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_219-1
Publication year: 2020

An area agency on aging (AAA) is a public or private nonprofit organization designated by the state to address the needs and concerns of all older persons at the regional and local levels in the United States (Administration for Community Living (ACL) 2019). AAAs have a successful history of developing, coordinating, and implementing comprehensive networks of services and programs that enrich communities and the lives of older adults. AAAs were established through a provision of the Older Americans Act (OAA 1965), which was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Specifically, AAAs were created with the 1973 reauthorization of the OAA. AAAs create the infrastructure to execute comprehensive long-term support services that ensure the independence of older adults.

Trust in Food

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
Klimczuk, A., & Klimczuk-Kochańska, M. (2019). Trust in Food. In D. M. Kaplan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics (pp. 2380–2386). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6167-4_630-1
Publication year: 2019

Trust is important in the food sector. This is primarily because households entrust some of the tasks related to food preparation to food processors. The public is concerned about pesticides, food additives, preservatives, and processed foods that may harbor unwanted chemicals or additives. After numerous food scandals, consumers expect food processing industries and retailers to take responsibility for food safety. Meanwhile, the food industry focuses on profit growth and costs reduction to achieve higher production efficiency and competitiveness. It means that they introduce innovations, such as new production methods, processing techniques, and additives. Consumers have to delegate the responsibility for ensuring food safety to food producers, retailers, and regulatory authorities who ensure that the foods are safe, healthy, and pose no risks. For consumers, trusting these actors can reduce feelings of uncertainty. It is helpful for companies to be responsible for their activities through transparency and traceability. In turn, the food industry tries to gain consumers’ trust by providing objective information, such as ranked brands or labels on food packages.

New Economy, Food, and Agriculture

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
Klimczuk, A., & Klimczuk-Kochańska, M. (2019). New Economy, Food, and Agriculture. In D. M. Kaplan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics (pp. 1893–1898). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6167-4_629-1
Publication year: 2019

Consumers are becoming increasingly more informed about food systems and are interested not only in healthy, safe, and tasty food but also sustainable production, animal welfare, climate changes, and food waste. Consumers are also more focused on changing their lifestyle related to improved health knowledge and nutrition education (Timmer 2005). Maxwell and Slater (2004) have proposed criteria to evaluate food systems, including nutrition and health, rights and influence, security, sustainability, equality, and social inclusion. The authors also point out that the primary international institutions in the food value chain are not only the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization but also United Nations Industrial Development Organization, International Labour Organization, and World Trade Organization. The emerging trends in the food system are features of the {\dq}new economy.{\dq} This term describes the outcome of the transition from production- and manufacturing-based economy to a service-based or post-industrial economy at the end of the twentieth century. The traditional production factors such as cheap labor, land, and raw materials lose their importance in generating profits and competitiveness. The key is understanding of food consumer demand, knowledge of food industry and agriculture employees based on creativity, and flexibility of processes of production.

Innovation in Food and Agriculture

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
Klimczuk, A., & Klimczuk-Kochańska, M. (2019). Innovation in Food and Agriculture. In D. M. Kaplan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics (pp. 1635–1641). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6167-4_628-1
Publication year: 2019

Innovation means change. In a case of food and agriculture, it can be the application of new proposals for raw material processing technology, packaging of products, new food additives, and new agricultural technologies. Innovation may lead to reducing or preventing adverse changes caused by microorganisms, oxidation of food ingredients, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions, as well as ensuring safety by inhibiting the development of some pathogenic microorganisms. Change can also provide healthier and more nutritious food. The food is tastier because of the prevention of adverse qualitative changes in food composition, including organoleptic changes, and changes in the perception and pleasures from eating food. In addition, crops can be more abundant thanks to reduced exposure to diseases, adapted agricultural treatments, or higher resistance to changing weather conditions.

Core-Periphery Model

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej; Klimczuk-Kochańska, Magdalena
Klimczuk, A., & Klimczuk-Kochańska, M. (2019). Core-Periphery Model. In S. Romaniuk, M. Thapa, & P. Marton (Eds.), The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies (pp. 1–8). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_320-1
Publication year: 2019

Core-periphery imbalances and regional disparities figure prominently on the agenda of several disciplines, which result from their enormous impact on economic and social development around the world. In sociology, international relations, and economics, this concept is crucial in explanations of economic exchange. There are few countries that play a dominant role in world trade (sometimes described as the “Global North”), while most countries have a secondary or even a tertiary position in world trade (the “Global South”). Moreover, when we are discussing global, continental, regional, and national economies, we can present regions and even smaller territorial units (such as subregions, provinces, districts, or counties) which have higher wages than some underdeveloped areas within the same larger area in focus. Such regional inequalities and injustices are the main themes of the core-periphery model, which focuses on tendencies of economic activities to concentrate around some pivotal points. It seeks to explain the spatial inequalities or imbalances observable on all levels or scales by highlighting the role of horizontal and vertical relations between various entities from the level of towns and cities to the global scale. The existence of a core-periphery structure implies that in the spatial dimension (space and place), the socioeconomic development is usually uneven. From such a geographical perspective, the regions known as the “core” are advanced in various areas, while other regions described as the “periphery” serve as a social, economic, and political backstages, backyards, and supply sources or – in some cases – are even subject to degradation and decline. Furthermore, the level of development has a negative correlation with distance from the core. The economies of the states that have gone through various stages of development at the earliest and with the fastest pace have become wealthy core regions and growth poles. Those countries and regions where these processes have been slower become or remain the poor periphery.

Kapitał społeczny ludzi starszych (Social Capital of Older People)

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej; Trafiałek, Elżbieta
Klimczuk, A., & Trafiałek, E. (2018). Kapitał społeczny ludzi starszych. In A. Zych (Ed.), Encyklopedia starości, starzenia się i niepełnosprawności (pp. 105–108). Katowice: Thesaurus Silesiae.
Publication year: 2018

In literature on the subject, the term “capital” appears in both functional, structural, normative and axiological approaches. In the humanities and social sciences this concept is understood as a value related to the human factor. In economic sciences, capital is a narrower concept than “resource.” Resources (eg raw materials, materials, land, work) are used by people to meet their needs, they are factors in the production of goods and services (Rekowski, 2002, pp. 12-13). Capital is a special factor of production, because it is already transformed resources (eg physical / physical, human, financial) that can be launched to bring profit, increase opportunities and achieve goals and benefits on the market (in sociological terms, these are different spheres social life, not only areas of exchange of goods and services).

Integracja wiekowa (Age Integration)

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej
Klimczuk, A. (2018). Integracja wiekowa. In A. Zych (Ed.), Encyklopedia starości, starzenia się i niepełnosprawności (pp. 71–73). Katowice: Thesaurus Silesiae.
Publication year: 2018

Age integration – a term used in social gerontology in at least two senses. In a narrow perspective – adopted mainly in English-language literature – age integration refers to such a structure of social roles in various institutions that allows for differences, but they do not depend strictly on the age structure, i.e. whether someone is a middle-aged adult or in an older age (Phillips et al., 2010). This is particularly about educational, economic, political, religious and leisure institutions in which people from different age groups and generations play different roles and occupy different positions. Age integration is based on the assumption that access to the institution, the possibility of exiting it and access to products (called outputs); services implemented in reality and benefits and outcomes paid out; the effects of implemented services and services, eg reduction of poverty, improvement of health, activities of these institutions is equal for all regardless of age.

Gerontologia kreatywna (Creative Gerontology)

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej
Klimczuk, A. (2018). Gerontologia kreatywna. In A. Zych (Ed.), Encyklopedia starości, starzenia się i niepełnosprawności (pp. 529–531). Katowice: Thesaurus Silesiae.
Publication year: 2018

Creative gerontology – department of social gerontology postulated by Anita Stefańska and Marta Szabelska-Holeksa (2013, pp. 155-165). Ultimately, this sub-discipline is to deal with the issues of creativity and creativity of older people. Creative gerontology is primarily associated with the psychology of creativity, and especially with creative acmeology, or the psychology of the creative personality of a human being. On the one hand, creative gerontology uses knowledge derived from geriatrics, gerontopsychology, experimental gerontology, gerontosociology and geragogy. On the other hand, the foundations of creative gerontology are embedded in the sections of creative acmeology, in particular in the history of creative acmeology, creative occupational acmeology, creative personality acmeology, experimental creative acmeology and applied creative acmeology (Wiszniakowa, 2003, Szarota, 2004). Conceptualization of the theory of creative gerontology is an attempt to apply theories already existing on the basis of psychology and gerontology. Creative gerontology as a multidisciplinary science is also to use the achievements of sociology, philosophy, medicine, biology, economics, demography, social anthropology and culture, social pedagogy, cultures and creativity as well as the sciences of culture and art.

Generacja sandwicz (Sandwich Generation)

Encyclopedia Articles
Klimczuk, Andrzej
Klimczuk, A. (2018). Generacja sandwicz. In A. Zych (Ed.), Encyklopedia starości, starzenia się i niepełnosprawności (pp. 485–487). Katowice: Thesaurus Silesiae.
Publication year: 2018

Sandwich generation – a group of middle-aged people who, due to its central position (status) in the age structure and related age stratification is a generation (generation) that simultaneously takes care of elderly people (mostly their parents) and younger people (mostly your children). This phenomenon is also referred to as “women in the middle” or “caught in the middle”. The concept of “sandwich generation” in a narrow sense refers mainly to the traditionally perceived caring roles of women who are middle-aged (middle adulthood) and at the same time on the forefront of old age (before late adulthood). In the feminist approach, the social expectations towards women between 40 and 60 years old are oriented on helping children and young people to get an independent adult life, on the other hand they are oriented towards providing care to the older generation, especially in the case of disability, dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. Expectations regarding these care roles are formalized in a smaller one (eg tradition, gender equality, cultural circle, stereotypes) or to a greater extent (eg family policy of the state, personnel policy of enterprises, universality of work-life balance programs) which leads to inequality between women and men (Korzec, 1997).

Work, Domestic Work, Emotional Labor

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Work, Domestic Work, Emotional Labor, [in:] B. Turner, P. Kivisto, W. Outhwaite, C. Kyung-Sup, C. Epstein, J.M. Ryan (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory, Wiley-Blackwell, London 2017, 1-4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118430873.est0409.
Publication year: 2017

The concept of work can be understood as a purposeful human activity, which is focused on the processing of natural goods, items and/or information by using tools to meet tangible and intangible needs. Work is the usage of instruments to support the existence of humankind and the social world. Domestic work refers to work of domestic help, which applies to employees, usually individuals who work and often live in the house of the employer. Emotional labor takes place in the public sphere as a social and economic exchange sold for wages during interactions with customers or coworkers. Emotional labor requires certain emotions to be displayed and expressed in line with organizational aims.

Welfare State

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Welfare State, [in:] B. Turner, P. Kivisto, W. Outhwaite, C. Kyung-Sup, C. Epstein, J.M. Ryan (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory, Wiley-Blackwell, London 2017, 1-5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118430873.est0406.
Publication year: 2017

The welfare state refers to a concept of a state that focuses on ensuring that a broad range of social rights is provided for all citizens by acting on the social mechanisms and consequences of the market economy. In such a state government plays a vital role in balancing social inequalities by providing or subsidizing social benefits and services. This activity is called social policy. Individual countries are characterized by different welfare state models, goals, values, and groups of beneficiaries. Such a state usually supports a recovery from the difficult situation of the population, which is not, itself, able to take care of their basic needs.

Theories of Death and Dying

Encyclopedia Articles
Artur Fabiś, Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, A. Fabiś, Death and Dying, theories of, [in:] B. Turner, P. Kivisto, W. Outhwaite, C. Kyung-Sup, C. Epstein, J.M. Ryan (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory, Wiley-Blackwell, London 2017, 1-7, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118430873.est0084.
Publication year: 2017

Death is a state of the total disappearance of life. Dying is a process of decay of the vital system, which ends with clinical death. In current perspectives there are several approaches to research on death and dying; these are the clinical, the humanistic, the philosophical, the psychological, the anthropological, and the sociological perspective.

Labor Markets

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Labor markets, [in:] B. Turner, P. Kivisto, W. Outhwaite, C. Kyung-Sup, C. Epstein, J.M. Ryan (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory, Wiley-Blackwell, London 2017, 1-5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118430873.est0200.
Publication year: 2017

In a market economy, human work is offered and sought in the labor market. It is valued because of the level of demand for it and the rarity of the required qualifications. At the same time, because of the different contexts and conditions, there are many labor markets that are defined as the professional labor markets, local labor markets, dual labor markets, and black and gray labor markets.

Bronisław Malinowski

Encyclopedia Articles
A. Klimczuk, Ł. Tomczyk
A. Klimczuk, Ł. Tomczyk, Bronislaw Malinowski, [in:] B. Turner, P. Kivisto, W. Outhwaite, C. Kyung-Sup, C. Epstein, J.M. Ryan (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory, Wiley-Blackwell, London 2017, 1-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118430873.est0225.
Publication year: 2017

Bronisław Kasper Malinowski was a Polish anthropologist, ethnographer, and sociologist. Malinowski is often considered as a pioneer in the ethnographic field research methods, such as participant observation, interviews, and statistics. His studies focused on beliefs and forms of social organization. Malinowski is often recognized as one of the founders of modern social anthropology and functionalism.

Work-Family Balance

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk, Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska
A. Klimczuk, M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, Work-Family Balance, [in:] N. Naples, A. Wong, M. Wickramasinghe, R.C. Hoogland (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey 2016, 1-3 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss523.
Publication year: 2016

The concept of work–family balance was introduced in the 1970s in the United Kingdom based on a work–leisure dichotomy, which was invented in the mid-1800s. It is usually related to the act of balancing of inter-role pressures between the work and family domains that leads to role conflict. The conflict is driven by the organizations’ views of the “ideal worker” as well as gender disparities and stereotypes that ignore or discount the time spent in the unpaid work of family and community. Solutions for balance include legislation, flexible workplace arrangements, and the market care services.

Trans Theorizing

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk, Małgorzata Bieńkowska
A. Klimczuk, M. Bieńkowska, Trans Theorizing, [in:] N. Naples, A. Wong, M. Wickramasinghe, R.C. Hoogland (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey 2016, 1-3 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss517.
Publication year: 2016

Trans is usually defined as the set of practices and identities outside of the binary gender system and includes individuals who identity as genderqueer, transgender or transsexual. Trans theories refer to a range of approaches including medical and psychiatric theories, performativity and social constructionist theories, and queer theory, that are used to explain transgender practices and identities.

Emotion Work

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk, Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska
A. Klimczuk, M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, Emotion Work, [in:] N. Naples, A. Wong, M. Wickramasinghe, R.C. Hoogland (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey 2016, 1-3 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss524.
Publication year: 2016

Emotion work is usually defined as the psychological processes necessary to regulate emotions that are desired in specific private life conditions. When controlling the intensity and quality of the individual’s feelings is related to the public sphere and undertaken for reasons associated with paid work it is called emotional labor. Such employment occurs in contemporary service economies where the provision of services is often related to “selling feelings,” which is mainly performed by women.

Dual Labor Market

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk, Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska
A. Klimczuk, M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, Dual Labor Market, [in:] N. Naples, A. Wong, M. Wickramasinghe, R.C. Hoogland (eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey 2016, 1-3 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss529.
Publication year: 2016

The dual labor market theory is one of the primary explanations for the gender differences in earnings. It shows that gender inequality and stereotypes lead to employment of men and women in different segments of the labor market characterized by various incomes. This theory is based on the hypothesis that such markets are divided into segments, which are divided by different rules of conduct for workers and employers. Differences also include production conditions, terms of employment, productivity of employees, and the characteristics of the workers’ jobs. This labor division is related to employee characteristics such as gender, age, and race that define their work environment and lifestyle.

Creative Aging: Drawing on the Arts to Enhance Healthy Aging

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Creative Aging: Drawing on the Arts to Enhance Healthy Aging, [in:] N.A. Pachana (ed.), Encyclopedia of Geropsychology, Springer Singapore, Singapore 2016, pp. 1-5.
Publication year: 2016

The term “creative aging,” in the broadest sense, describes an aging policy idea that focuses on highlighting the creativity of older adults in order to prepare individuals and communities to manage old age. Programs focus on the evolution of creativity over the lifespan and aim to provide meaningful participatory engagement, especially through the arts.

Adulthood

Encyclopedia Articles
A. Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Adulthood, [in:] H.L. Miller (ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology, Sage, Thousand Oaks 2016, pp. 15-18.
Publication year: 2016

Adulthood is usually defined as the period of human development in which the physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development of women and men slow and reach their highest level. Although scholars strive to build consistent theories, the description of the developmentally highest level differs between countries and cultures due to economic factors and sociocultural factors. After presenting some basic concepts of adulthood from different cultures, this entry continues with a psychological definition of adulthood, a discussion of characteristics of maturity, and brief descriptions of various theories about what constitutes adulthood. It ends with suggestions for the direction of future discussions on adulthood.

Activities of Daily Living

Encyclopedia Articles
A. Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Activities of Daily Living, [in:] C. Shehan (ed.), The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey 2016, pp. 22-25.
Publication year: 2016

Measurement of ability or inability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) is important to in describing the functional status of a person and then implementing an intervention. Evaluations of ADLs are mainly used in nursing and in rehabilitation of people with disabilities and the elderly. Measuring ability to perform ADLs is crucial for the management of healthcare in aging societies. It is important to understand differences between categories of ADLs and challenges in their evaluation that are connected to the roles of family members.

Technology Transfer

Encyclopedia Articles
Magdalena, Klimczuk-Kochańska; Andrzej, Klimczuk
M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, A. Klimczuk, Technology Transfer, [in:] M. Odekon (eds.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty, 2nd Edition, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks 2015, pp. 1529-1531.
Publication year: 2015

Technology transfer is the movement of technical and organizational skills, knowledge, and methods from one individual or organization to another for economic purposes. This process usually involves a group that possesses specialized technical skills and technology that transfers it to a target group of receptors who do not possess those skills, and who cannot create that technology themselves.

Technological Unemployment

Encyclopedia Articles
Magdalena, Klimczuk-Kochańska; Andrzej, Klimczuk
M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, A. Klimczuk, Technological Unemployment, [in:] M. Odekon (eds.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty, 2nd Edition, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks 2015, pp. 1510-1511.
Publication year: 2015

Technological unemployment is a situation when people are without work and seeking work because of innovative production processes and labor-saving organizational solutions.

Social and Solidarity Economy

Encyclopedia Articles
Magdalena, Klimczuk-Kochańska; Andrzej, Klimczuk
M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, A. Klimczuk, Social and Solidarity Economy, [in:] M. Odekon (eds.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty, 2nd Edition, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks 2015, pp. 1413-1416.
Publication year: 2015

The social and solidarity economy concept refers to enterprises, organizations, and innovations that combine production of goods, services, and knowledge with achieving economic and social goals as well as solidarity building.

Public Policy: Ethics

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Public Policy: Ethics, [in:] J. D. Wright (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, Elsevier, Oxford 2015, pp. 580-585.
Publication year: 2015

Abstract

There are many ethical dimensions of public policy. Public policy as actions to solve the collective problems includes directly or indirectly making ethical judgments. Public policy takes into account reconciliation of conflicting interests of individuals, groups, and organizations which is based on the values agreeing which influences on the objectives, principles, and styles of policy implementation. Ethical judgments about selecting more and less important as well as more positive problem solutions are present on all stages of policy cycle.

New Technology: Risks and Gains

Encyclopedia Articles
Magdalena, Klimczuk-Kochańska; Andrzej, Klimczuk
M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, A. Klimczuk, New Technology: Risks and Gains, [in:] M. Odekon (eds.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty, 2nd Edition, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks 2015, pp. 1144-1147.
Publication year: 2015

New technologies are often radical innovations that change current activities across different areas of social and economic life. At the beginning of the 21st century, some of these technologies are information and communications technology (ICT), nanotechnology, biotechnology, robotics, and artificial intelligence. These innovations stimulate new opportunities for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and thus can help solve social problems. But they also cause new social risks and inequalities.

Intergenerationality, Intergenerational Justice, Intergenerational Policies

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Intergenerationality, Intergenerational Justice, Intergenerational Policies, [in:] S. Thompson (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham 2015, pp. 419-423.
Publication year: 2015

Abstract

“Age of life” is one of the essential characteristics that differentiate people. Age perception is also associated with social justice. The concept of age is defined ambiguously. At the same time, the different age criteria also forms the basis of age differentiation and age discrimination. The population lead to distinctions of age groups, age categories, and generations. Differences between generations also lead to Study in the concepts of intergenerationality, intergenerational justice, and intergenerational policies.

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living

Encyclopedia Articles
A. Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, [in:] C. Shehan (ed.), The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey 2016, pp. 1148-1151.
Publication year: 2015

Activities of daily living are usually defined as skills needed in typical daily self-care. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are more complex skills beyond basic self-care, and their measurement evaluates how individuals function in their homes, workplaces, and outdoor environments. The skills that pertain to IADLs are exposed to dysfunctions resulting from aging or illness. Reductions in those skills may begin to cause problems with independence but these problems can be solved with the help of others – for example, family members, social workers, and nurses.

Generational Differences, Generations of Western Society, Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Generational Differences, Generations of Western Society, Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace, [in:] S. Thompson (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham 2015, pp. 348-352.
Publication year: 2015

Abstract

Generational differences in societies are characteristics generally attributed to people’s age that constitute a sociocultural phenomenon. Divisions in the generations differ across nations and extend even to civilizations. Perception and recognition of the different characteristics of each generation affect the cooperation between people in social, political, and economic capacities, and subsequently extend to entities in the public, informal, commercial, and nongovernmental sectors. From the perspective of social justice, it is important to draw attention to how workplace management techniques are used to promote equal opportunities among representatives of various generations.

Cultural Capital

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Cultural Capital, [in:] D. Cook, J.M. Ryan (eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Consumption and Consumer Studies, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey 2015, pp. 209-214.
Publication year: 2015

Abstract

Cultural capital is usually defined as set of social features that provide individuals with social mobility and the possibility of changing their hierarchical position in systems such as wealth, power, prestige, education, and health. Cultural capital thus affects the processes of social promotion or degradation. It also includes social characteristics that allow horizontal mobility, that is, changes in social group membership. An individual’s cultural capital includes his or her social origin, education, taste, lifestyle, style of speech, and dress.

Causes of Crime

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Causes of Crime, [in:] F.F. Wherry (eds.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society, Sage, Los Angeles 2015, pp. 308-311.
Publication year: 2015

Causes of crime are the subject of the etiology of criminal behavior, which is characterized by an interdisciplinary approach. There are many theories attempting to explain the determinants of criminal behavior, a set of acts recognized by the criminal law, which emphasize different aspects of this phenomenon.

Single Parents

Encyclopedia Articles
Andrzej Klimczuk
A. Klimczuk, Single Parents, [in:] L.H. Cousins (eds.), Encyclopedia of Human Services and Diversity, Sage, Los Angeles 2014, pp. 1191-1194.
Publication year: 2014

Abstract

Services for single parents constitute a category of child and family services. These services are carried out by public and non-governmental bodies for people who are single parents by the unfortunate events or by their own choice. Individuals come to single parenthood mainly through divorce, separation, birth outside of marriage, child abuse/neglect, death of a partner/widowhood, and adoption.