The aim of this workshop was to ask potential end-users of the citizens’ information pack on legal and ethical issues around ICTs (i.e. citizens and citizens’ groups) the following questions: What is your knowledge of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and what actions have you taken in response to these regulations? What challenges are you experiencing in ensuring the protection and security of your project data, and compliance with the GDPR, within existing data management processes/systems? What information/tools/resources do you need to overcome these challenges? What are the best formats/channels for receiving, sharing and acting upon this information? What is the most appropriate structure/format(s) for the citizens’ information pack?
The behavioural sciences, social sciences and humanities can bring us new insights into our political behaviour, such as how and why emotions, values, identity and reason affect how we think, talk and take decisions on political issues. Misperception and disinformation: our thinking skills are challenged by today’s information environment and make us vulnerable to disinformation. We need to think more about how we think. Motivated reasoning makes people resist evidence that runs against their beliefs. Misinformed people do not think of themselves as ignorant – they hold facts which they believe to be true. False news, particularly political is diffused ‘significantly farther, faster, deeper and more broadly than the truth’. Corrections do lead to more accurate assessments of the facts although generally do not change people’s views. Collective intelligence: science can help us re-design the way policymakers work together to take better decisions and prevent policy mistakes. Thinking collectively can significantly improve the quality of political decisions but only if collaborative processes are carefully designed. Only if all critical information, unique knowledge and expertise are shared can collective intelligence be achieved and groupthink or polarisation avoided. Psychological safety is essential for the sharing of critical information, ideas, questions and dissenting opinions. Emotions: we can’t separate emotion from reason. Better information about citizens’ emotions and greater emotional literacy could improve policymaking. Emotions are just as essential to decision-making as logical reasoning and as likely to enhance rationality as to subvert it. Angry people are less likely to seek information and more likely to adopt a closed mind while anxiety may lead to a deeper processing of information. Sensing citizens’ emotions more effectively could better guide policy choices. Learning to integrate and use emotions, rather than trying to suppress them could improve decision-making and collaboration in government. Values and identities drive political behaviour but are not properly understood or debated. Political decisions are strongly influenced by group identity, values, worldviews, ideologies and personality traits. Political polarisation is on the rise and a new form of cultural, rather than economic, polarisation has emerged, with the far right opposed to immigration and multiculturalism. Values strongly influence not only our political behaviour but also our perceptions about facts. Framing, metaphor and narrative: facts don’t speak for themselves. Framing, metaphors and narratives need to be used responsibly if evidence is to be heard andunderstood. There is no such thing as a neutral frame; something is included at the expense of something else. The ways in which policy problems are framed can substantially influence beliefs. It is not the side with the most or best facts that wins an argument, but the one that provides the most plausible scenario that feels intuitively reliable, communicated by a perceived credible source. Trust and openness: the erosion of trust in experts and in government can only be addressed by greater honesty and public deliberation about interests and values. Trustworthiness depends on expertise, honesty shared interests and values. The ideal of value-free science is more complex in reality: values may enter at several stages of the process. This does not mean that science cannot be trusted but that there is a need to be more transparent about the role of values in science. Opening evidence to public scrutiny is crucial to maintain scientific authority. Deliberative democracy and citizen engagement can be effective responses to the loss of trust in democratic institutions. Evidence-informed policymaking: the principle that policy should be informed by evidence is under attack. Politicians, scientists and civil society need to defend this cornerstone of liberal democracy. The framing of a policy problem is a political rather than technical issue that determines what research is needed, what evidence counts and what should be ignored. The commitment to evidence-informed policy cannot be taken for granted. Partisan leadership in highly polarised political environments undermines the capacity of governments to use evidence effectively. There are extensive barriers to the use of evidence – scientists and policymakers have different norms, cultures, languages, misaligned incentives, understanding of time and budget constraints. A well-designed evidence-informed policy system would include knowledge brokers and boundary organisations between scientists and policymakers. The principle of informing policy through evidence could be recognised as a key accompaniment to the principles of democracy and the rule of law.
Globally, the population is ageing, which has serious consequences for businesses. The prosperity of companies is crucially dependent on the ability to effectively manage their employees, including older workers. Best practice in age management is defined as those measures that combat age barriers and/or promote age diversity. These measures may entail specific initiatives aimed at particular dimensions of age management; they may also include more general employment or human resources policies that help to create an environment in which individual employees can achieve their potential without being disadvantaged by their age (Walker, 1999). Promoting early retirement is generally not encouraged. Companies now have to encourage longer working lives. Much needs to be done to ensure that work remains a positive experience for workers throughout their career trajectories, and it does not damage their health. It has been found by studies that health is significantly related to retirement timing (both planned and unplanned) (Goyer, 2013, Adams et al., 2014), influences work performance (Merrill et al., 2012; Ilmarinen, 2009), and health-related organisational policies can positively influence employee retention (Towers, 2005). The major contemporary challenges to health at work are those associated with the way work, and work organisations are designed and managed. This is especially true for older workers. A comprehensive and effective approach towards age management can be very beneficial for them. How should companies implement age management? Some possible ways are set out in this policy brief below, which focuses on best practices in age management regarding ergonomic aspects and health interventions for older workers at an organisational level. The intention is to discuss the current situation and to illustrate some organisational techniques in selected countries. This policy brief can serve as an inspiration for, among others, companies and policymakers. Recommendations for successful practice are included. In total, this policy brief covers 8 COST member countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) to give a glimpse of the current situation of best practice in age management and show how companies in various states deal with ergonomic aspects, health interventions and the ageing of their labour force.
A. Klimczuk, Creativity, an Essential Condition for the Development of Smart and Age-friendly Cities and Communities, Journal of Brief Ideas, 04.02.2019, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3236948
A. Klimczuk, Jak przemysły kreatywne mogą pozytywnie oddziaływać na starzenie się i starość? (How Can Creative Industries Have an Impact on Ageing and Old Age?), Fundacja ZACZYN, „Polityka Senioralna” 2018, nr 1, pp. 52-53.
Niektórzy ludzie twierdzą, że przemysły kreatywne mają niewiele wspólnego ze starzeniem się i starością. Słowa „kreatywność” i „twórczość” są coraz częściej stosowane niemal jako synonimy cech ludzi młodych i młodości jako etapu życia. Tymczasem wszyscy korzystamy z pewnych stworzonych przez innych ludzi technologii do wykonywania różnorodnych codziennych czynności. Ponadto bez względu na wiek korzystamy z produktów opracowanych w ramach rzemiosła, wzornictwa/designu lub w sektorze produkcji oprogramowania. Współczesne społeczeństwa mają też do czynienia z nadmiarem treści pochodzących m.in. z branży muzycznej, branży wydawniczej oraz branży filmowej i wideo.
Research within the H2020 PROGRESSIVE project (http://platform.progressivestandards.org/) has identified good practices in user co-production strategies and methodologies. Early findings from research in the PROGRESSIVE project were shared with relevant stakeholders outside the consortium for consultation and review. The outcomes of that initial investigation highlighted the need to focus on the objectives, processes, and methods used in user and older people co-production. This guide adapts these insights and makes them relevant specifically for standardisation in ICT for active and healthy ageing. This guide was approved by representatives of the PROGRESSIVE project on 22 February 2018. The consortium has requested comments from interested stakeholders in an enquiry from 1 March to 30 April 2018. The PROGRESSIVE guide was approved on 5 June 2018.
K. Mammadova, A. Klimczuk, Wywiad z profesor Christine Sleeter o wyzwaniach edukacji wielokulturowej (Interview with Professor Christine Sleeter on the challenges of multicultural education), „ngo.pl” 04.05.2017, electronic publication: http://wiadomosci.ngo.pl/wiadomosc/2066921.html.
The Salzburg Statement for a Multilingual World, December 2017, https://education.salzburgglobal.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Documents/2010-2019/2017/Session_586/SalzburgGlobal_Statement_586_-_Multilingual_World__combined_.pdf
The Manifesto on Citizen Engagement, the European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and Communities’ Citizen Focus Action Cluster, 2017, http://eu-smartcities.eu/news/follow-citizen-engagement-manifesto-go-local-campaign; http://eu-smartcities.eu/sites/default/files/2017-11/EIP-SCC%20POLISH%20Manifesto.pdf.
A. Klimczuk, Guest Blog: How the Creative Industries Can Positively Impact Ageing and Old Age, International Network for Critical Gerontology, 09.06.2017, http://criticalgerontology.com/creative-impact-ageing/.
A. Klimczuk, Cultural Diversity, Multiculturalism, and the Challenge of the Ageing Population, [in:] H. Qarasov (ed.), Materials of International Scientific Conference “Multiculturalism and Human Rights” Dedicated to the Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, NURLAR, Baku 2017, pp. 150-152.
Social Innovation Index 2016: Old problems, new solutions: Measuring the capacity for social innovation across the world, The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2016, https://www.eiuperspectives.economist.com/sites/default/files/Social_Innovation_Index.pdf.
A. Klimczuk, Jak upowszechniać innowacje dla starzejącego się społeczeństwa (How to Disseminate Innovations for an Ageing Population), Federacja FOSa, Olsztyn, „Generacja” 2016, nr 17, p. 17.
A. Klimczuk, Guest Blog: How to Disseminate and Scale Up Social Innovations for Aging Societies, International Network for Critical Gerontology, 19.06.2016, http://criticalgerontology.com/social-innovations/.